Yoana Sirakova (Sofia)
AUTHOR, AUDIENCE AND LITERARY PURPOSE IN TRANSLATING ANCIENT TEXTS
Translation is an idiosyncratic process. As far as translating ancient texts is concerned we may define it as a literary process, based upon linguistic procedures. The question of adequacy of literary translation from Latin can be considered from two point of views: grammatically and lexically. Attaining grammatical adaptability is the easier task. This relative ease is predetermined by the target language structure, which imposes by itself the modification of rules in the act of transformation. Changes of word order, the substitution of noun forms with verb forms, the substitution of pronoun forms into noun forms is inevitable.
The accommodation of source language lexical structures to the target language semantic requirements causes more difficulties to translators. The differences, these difficulties result from, ca be observed on three lexical levels: the first one is the level, where we can easily discover the necessary equivalent; the second one is the level, where are included denominations, signifying different objects in different cultures, yet having the same functions; the third level contains specific cultural attribute (realia), where it is impossible to avoid target forms and expressions, especially if deep differences exist in cultural type.
The textual meaning is constructed in a different literary manner in various languages. The content substance may be the same in diverse languages, but it is inseparably connected to the content frame, which varies according to languages and their syntactic and morphological rules. This is because every language system makes in itself an analysis of the exterior world and this analysis is specific and different from other languages analyses. The content and language frame of human spiritual life cannot be separated. Every language makes its own structure according to the world it reflects. The inherent difference expressed in various languages creates the greatest obstacle in translation. Every language builds its proper concept of the world. Arguments for that could be discovered on the lexical levels of languages.